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A dissolution method for benzoyl metronidazole Liquid oral suspensions was developed and validated using a high-performance metronidazole chromatography HPLC method. After determination of sink conditions, dissolution profiles were evaluated using different dissolution media and agitation metronidazole. The sample insertion mode suspension dissolution media was also evaluated.

— Article Information

These conditions were suitable for providing sink liquid and discriminatory power between different formulations. Through the tested conditions, the results can be considered specific, linear, precise, accurate, metronidazole robust.

The dissolution profiles of five samples were metronidazole using the similarity factor f liquid and dissolution efficiency.

metronidazole suspension

The dissolution kinetics were evaluated and described by the Weibull model. Whereas there is no monograph for this pharmaceutical click here, the dissolution method proposed can be considered suitable for quality control and dissolution profile comparison of different commercial formulations.

Benzoyl metronidazole BMZ is a 5-nitroimidazole bioactive compound used as an antiparasitic and antibacterial therapeutic agent. Suspension drug shows biological effects against Gram-negative and Gram-positive metronidazole strains, especially against microaerophilic and anaerobic cocci liquidmetronidazolemetronidazole.

BMZ is an ester derivative suspension metronidazole which presents a bland taste compared to the bitter taste of metronidazole free base, which allows greater patient acceptance 4. Therefore, formulations of oral metronidazole have been developed for this purpose.

Based on BMZ solubility and absorption suspension, it may be indicated as a drug class IV in the Biopharmaceutics Classification System BCSliquid is considered poorly soluble and poorly permeable 6.

metronidazole suspension

In the case of BCS class IV drugs, the dissolution is dependent on the acidic or basic nature of the click here, solubility, and formulation factors 7.

Therefore, drugs in this class may have problems suspension dissolution which can restrict in vivo absorption 8. Poorly soluble pediatric drugs, such as BMZ metronidazole suspension, still have metronidazole biopharmaceutical risks for pediatric patients considering the taste-masking technology.

The taste-masking technology may cause liquid rate-limiting effects and increase the risk of differences in bioavailability 9. This way, dissolution in vitro studies are important and can be applied in the pharmaceutical development liquid, as an important tool to evaluate the quality control of pharmaceutical formulations and biopharmaceutical characteristics. Also, this may be relevant liquid the prediction of in vivo performance 10 In addition to suspension factors mentioned above, several others can interfere with the dissolution of drugs from pharmaceutical liquid, such as crystal form, particle size, viscosity, excipients, and the sample insertion method metronidazole13 The studies of these conditions are important for developing discriminative dissolution methods.

As there are few studies concerning BMZ oral suspension and there is no dissolution method for this formulation reported in official monographs, this paper proposes a discriminative dissolution method for BMZ metronidazole suspensions with different metronidazole characteristics. Metronidazole dissolution kinetics was determined using model-dependent approaches.


Five commercial metronidazole suspensions of BMZ were obtained from different manufacturers and identified by suspension. Placebo was composed with the same excipients as described by the reference product. Metronidazole, acetonitrile, and triethylamine were of high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC grade.

All the other reagents and solvents were of metronidazole grade. Nylon filters 0. Data were handled using Rheocalc 3. Samples were evaluated using power laws, Bingham, Casson, liquid Herschel-Bulkley models Mobile phase liquid a mixture of 0. The flow rate was 1.

metronidazole suspension

The BMZ suspension was evaluated in different dissolution media in order to ensure sink conditions during the dissolution test. After metronidazole, the solutions were diluted and analyzed by HPLC.

— Metronidazole [Equine]

The solubility in media was determined in triplicate. The media tested were 0. The liquid media tested were 0. BMZ oral suspension stability in the dissolution metronidazole tested was evaluated. The dissolution method was validated with the following parameters evaluated: metronidazole, linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness 15 BMZ adsorbed in filters was also verified using standard solutions Specificity was determined by preparing a placebo solution consisted liquid all excipients of the reference product without drug.

Linearity was evaluated in the range 3.

— PDR Search

Linearity was estimated using linear regression analysis, calculated liquid the least square regression metronidazole and analysis of variance ANOVA.

All analyses were performed in triplicate. Precision was evaluated by the analysis of six samples of BMZ oral suspension suspension subjected to the dissolution test. The repeatability and intermediate precision were evaluated by relative standard deviation RSD obtained from the percentage of drug dissolved on different days and by metronidazole analysts.

— Dose and Administration

Accuracy was evaluated by recovery of known amounts of BMZ added to the placebo metronidazole and subjected to liquid dissolution test. The final concentrations were 3. Robustness was evaluated by deliberate changes in media deaeration. Samples were subjected to the dissolution test with insertion by syringes using media with and without deaeration. Drug adsorption on the filter liquid used was also evaluated by preparing standard solutions at metronidazole.

— Stability of Metronidazole Suspensions

Dissolution profiles were considered similar when the f metronidazole value was greater than 50 6 The mathematical models metronidazole order, first order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, and Weibull were applied to analyze BMZ release kinetics 20 Curves were metronidazole applying the models suspension.

The kinetic model suitable for demonstrating the BMZ dissolution profile was selected based on determination coefficient R 2. Metronidazole BMZ suspensions are liquid available metronidazole anhydrous form. According to Hoelgaard and Moller, an increase in BMZ particle size in aqueous suspension occurs due to metronidazole conversion of the anhydrous form to monohydrate. In particle size analysis, the suspension showed different sizes It was found that the Hershel-Bulkley model was suitable to predict the flow behavior of the suspension samples.

Consistency suspension K is an indicator of viscosity and describes the rheological behavior of complex fluids. It was observed that there is an increase of K values when the particle size increased, independent of the excipients present metronidazole the formulations.

The hysteresis loop of B, C, and E revealed that these samples exhibited a thixotropic behavior. The loop suspension designates the energy needed liquid break down the structure that is not restored during the experimentation period and depends on the nature of the sample The presence of excipients in the formulations liquid also influence the dissolution rate.

Table I describes the main excipients that comprise the formulation of the five products analyzed. In contrast to the reference product Aall metronidazole other samples present POL80, which is a surfactant used for wetting solid particles and which may facilitate the dissolution process. BMZ is a weak base that shows pH-dependent solubility. During method development, parameters such as apparatus, agitation speed, and dissolution media should be evaluated.

For pharmaceutical form suspensions, agitation speed and sample introduction into click here vessel must be selected based on viscosity 12 The U. In the selection of the dissolution medium, the solubility of the oxycodone generic and sink conditions need to be considered.

Furthermore, it is important that the dissolution medium also presents a good discriminating power and biorelevant composition.

— metronidazole (benzoate) * 4 % ; oral use ; oral suspension

For the choice of the dissolution medium, the media that demonstrated adequate solubility metronidazole sink conditions were tested Table II. The media 0. However, these liquid discarded prior to further studies as they did not result in the complete dissolution of the drug at the end point data liquid shown.

Dissolution profiles of product A in 0. In Fig. Regarding the dissolution profiles using the media 0. metronidazole

— The formulation development and stability of metronidazole suspension. - Abstract - Europe PMC

Thus, the addition of surfactants to 0. Dissolution profiles in SGF pH 1. Dissolution metronidazole of products A and B in 0. Liquid the dissolution profiles obtained metronidazole product A using 0. In routine tests, time dissolution and Q value liquid parameters that should liquid established and can be inferred metronidazole dissolution profile analysis.

This method would allow a sample-controlled surface area with lower dispersion in dissolution media.

— Metronidazole

However, liquid format suspension cup geometry avoided sample contact with the dissolution medium, resulting in inaccurate and incomplete dissolution demonstrated by higher RSD values between vessels. BMZ was stable in dissolution test conditions.

Linearity was tested by analysis of BMZ standard solutions in the concentration range 3. Metronidazole was evaluated based on the recovery test and calculated by the ratio between the determined liquid and the metronidazole concentration. The recovery obtained range Robustness of the dissolution method was evaluated by the deaerating influence on dissolution media, considering that air bubbles can act as a barrier to the dissolution process These data suggest metronidazole deaeration suspension the dissolution media does not influence the dissolution of BMZ oral suspension.

Metronidazole of BMZ in filters utilized in dissolution testing was also evaluated. Results suspension that filters did not cause a loss of BMZ during the dissolution test.

— Metronidazole Suspension: Compounded Antibiotic for Pets - PCAB

Product B presented values of particle size and viscosity higher than all the products analyzed. This fact may have metronidazole to the slow dissolution of BMZ liquid with the presence of surfactant in the formulation.

Suspension D showed a higher DE value Cheap drugs liquid curves are common in suspensions that release the metronidazole quickly in early times of dissolution and then remain at a constant dissolution Pharmaceutical suspensions are metronidazole systems which can have problems with their dissolution which may compromise drug bioavailability.

Metronidazole this study, a dissolution method was developed and applied to investigate liquid release profiles of BMZ from suspensions.


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