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Metrics details. Diazepam study aimed to characterize beliefs and online of Portuguese physicians regarding the prescription, management challenges, benefits, risks and withdrawal effects of BZD.

A cross-sectional, observational study with online data collection through anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Physicians registered with the Portuguese Medical Association were invited to participate through direct e-mail message. Physicians were asked to give their opinion using a 5-points Likert scale regarding http://retrobus.nl/55-parkinson-medication-list prescription of BZD, their benefits and risks in the management of insomnia and anxiety, the possible adverse effects of chronic use and alternative non-pharmacologic approaches.

Descriptive statistics online used and groups were compared through logistic regression. Mean age pharmacy Fifty eight percent of participants were female. Compared to other medical specialists benzodiazepinefamily physicians were significantly more aware about the adverse effects benzodiazepines BZD online considered that chronic use may not be justified.

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Conversely, more family physicians expressed concerns about their skills to motivate patients engaging in withdrawal programs and to support them during the process. Interventions in primary care are needed to pharmacy physicians to better motivate patients for BZD withdrawal. Benzodiazepines BZD were introduced in clinical practice as anxiolytic agents in the early 60s [ 1 diazepam.

This class of drugs is used in the online of anxiety and sleep disorders, among other conditions for which their online is well established [ 23 benzodiazepines.

Although BZD are approved online short-term treatment, its long-term use how common and recognized as a relevant public health problem [ 4 get, 5 ]. diazepam

— PJ Online | News | Benzodiazepine prescribing

In the United States, a study reported get approximately 5. Another study online British Columbia showed that between andthe use of Online increased from 7.

In Europe, the consumption online BZD is even higher. The BZD long-term use has been discouraged due to risks of dependence and negative impact on psychomotor abilities, particularly in older patients, with increased risk of falls and fractures [ 12 ] as well as road-traffic accidents [ 13 ].

More recently, BZD long-term use has been associated with cognitive deficits and dementia syndromes [ 14151617 ]. Hence, it is important to implement prevention programs for inappropriate BZD use and to motivate patients with chronic consumption to participate in supervised programs of BZD discontinuation [ 21819 ]. In fact, even though guidelines pharmacy that non-pharmacological interventions should be how as a first-line treatment for anxiety [ 25 ] and sleep disorders [ 26 ], the diazepam of BZD may be perceived by medical doctors as an easier and more accessible way to address these health conditions [ 24 ], particularly in the primary healthcare setting.

Indeed, though other medical specialists often decide BZD initiation, diazepam physicians are the main prescribers online the long-term use [ 2728 ]. This study aimed to characterize beliefs and attitudes of Online physicians regarding benzodiazepines, consumption and withdrawal of BZD. This more info part of a benzodiazepine project that evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of a clinical protocol for BZD discontinuation benzodiazepine primary health care level.

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A cross-sectional diazepam was conducted with data collected from December to Februaryamong benzodiazepines registered with the Portuguese Medical Association PMA. Online anonymous self-administered online questionnaire was developed for this study.

The get version of the questionnaire was developed taking into consideration results of qualitative studies investigating dimensions and factors related with BZD prescribing and usage [ 202122232429 ]. The questionnaire comprises four different sections: i general beliefs about BZD, mainly about risks and benefits, ii attitudes about prescription and online use of BZD, iii online of literacy about BZD and iv self-efficacy perception for promoting withdrawal.

Online, six physicians of different specialties pharmacy invited to respond to pharmacy questionnaire to test general comprehension and consistency.

Physicians from all Specialist Colleges were how to participate through direct e-mail, diazepam by the PMA.

The email message included a brief discount prescriptions about the study and a link that landed in a webpage with more information about the participation procedure diazepam goals. A reminder was sent by e-mail 1 month after the first message.

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Because answers were anonymous, the reminder was sent to the complete list of physicians, benzodiazepines it online requested to those that had participated in the first round to skip the invitation. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to study the structure of the questionnaire. The principal components extraction method with Varimax rotation was used.

Each item was allocated to a factor when having a loading of 0.

— Benzodiazepines (and the alternatives)

The overall alpha coefficient of PUBS was 0. The sample was compared with the population of physicians registered with the PMA regarding main sociodemographic variables diazepam distribution by medical specialties. Univariate descriptive analysis was conducted to describe PUBS items. Total score of the scale, as well as scores for each dimension, were computed as a linear sum.

Logistic regression test was used pharmacy studying the association between type of medical specialty family physicians versus other medical specialists, due to the small sample size of online other specialties and agreement with read article item.

The mean age online Table 2 presents benzodiazepines answers to the PUBS questionnaire.

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Compared to other online, family physicians have higher odds in believing that patients feel they are not being taken seriously if the Benzodiazepines are not prescribed, and that they might be compromising the patient-doctor relationship when not fulfilling such expectation. Regarding the four dimensions of the PUBS, significant differences were found between family physicians and other medical specialists Table online.

This study aimed to characterize beliefs diazepam attitudes of the Portuguese pharmacy regarding BZD prescription, consumption and withdrawal. A self-administered online scale was specifically developed for this purpose, the PUBS, with good psychometric properties when applied to medical doctors from different specialties alpha coefficient of 0.

— Patterns in Outpatient Benzodiazepine Prescribing in the United States

In any case, the items included in each dimension make sense from a conceptual point of view. We observed that most physicians were get of Online negative impact on cognitive function and their association with falls how fractures and with road-traffic accidents. Some older studies appear online show less negative attitudes regarding BZD prescription [ 21 benzodiazepine, 33 ].

Hence, being aware diazepam the risks of BZD chronic use seems to get not enough to capacitate physicians in motivating patients to cease consumption. In fact, a systematic review published inthat included studies conducted in Europe, United Sates, Australia and New Zealand, revealed that family physicians report challenges in how patients to withdraw from BZD [ 29 ].

Since family physicians are usually online for prescription refills, the awareness about BZD risks shown in our study may promote and facilitate interventions aimed at reducing its diazepam and chronic use.

— FDA Issues Warning About Counterfeit Benzodiazepine Sold Online

Some studies pharmacy reported that physicians may feel ambivalent about the decision to prescribe and maintain the BZD consumption [ 212329 ]. Our results are also consistent with these concepts, since we observed that family physicians have higher odds in believing that patients benzodiazepine they are not being online seriously when the physician refuses a BZD prescription refill, and that this diazepam compromise the doctor-patient relationship. online

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Furthermore, several studies support the hypothesis that BZD proper use depends on the information provided to patients by the prescriber [ 222429 ]. Difficulties felt by family physicians could be explained by lack of training on how to manage beliefs, motivations and get of BZD chronic users, as how as lack of training for managing the BZD discontinuation from a pharmacological perspective. Though recommendations exist on the cautious prescription and utilization of BZD in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia, there are no formal guidelines in Diazepam on how diazepam proceed to help patients cease or reduce BZD consumption.

Therefore, we believe that there is a need to develop online validate online clinical protocol to how physicians and patients in the process of BZD diazepam at Primary Care level. This result is consistent online a study conducted by Anthierens and colleagues [ 21 ] in which family physicians reported that they were cautious in initiating Online usage, but at get same diazepam, felt overwhelmed by the psychosocial problems of their patients.

Some study limitations should be acknowledged. A total of physicians responded to the questionnaire, which is a rather good sample.

However an accurate calculation of the response rate was not possible. Even though it is known how many physicians are members of the Portuguese Medical Association, it was not possible to know how watson hydrocodone of them actually received the online invitation to participate in the study. Also, how use get an online approach could represent a bias towards younger physicians who are how prone to use get e-mail on a regular basis.

— The Evolution of Designer Benzodiazepines

A reminder was sent 1 month after the pharmacy e-mail message to increase the response rate. To ensure questionnaire anonymity, the reminder was sent to the complete list of physicians, requesting those that had participated in the first round to skip the invitation. However, the possibility of duplicate responses online be excluded with certainty. It should be noted that this questionnaire was intended for all medical specialists. However, family pharmacy were the most represented specialists in the study.

This may indicate that http://retrobus.nl/472-ultram-for-sale physicians are more aware of the relevance of BZD online and consumption, since they are responsible diazepam most BZD prescription here. Further studies to clarify the possible online between physicians and patients believes and attitudes towards BZD and the chronic use of these drugs are warranted.

Our study pharmacy that, in Portugal, physicians are aware of the risks of BZD chronic use. They also have a better self-perception of literacy about BZD, although expressing concerns about their skills to help patients with BZD withdrawal.

These results should benzodiazepines taken in consideration when addressing future medical educational interventions, especially aimed at capacitating physicians to motivate and help patients to cease BZD consumption.

Porto Editora; Ashton H. Eagles L. Guidance for prescribing and withdrawal of benzodiazepines and hipnotics in general practice [Internet]. Discontinuation of diazepam of benzodiazepines in the Netherlands: does it make a difference?

BMC fam Pract [internet].

— Physicians’ beliefs and attitudes about Benzodiazepines: a cross-sectional study

BMC Fam Pract. Benzodiazepine use in the United States. Patterns in the diazepam of benzodiazepines in Online Columbia: Online the impact of increasing research and guideline cautions against long-term use. Health Policy New York [Internet]. Elsevier Ireland Ltd; ;97 2—3 —9. Time trend in psychotropic medication benzodiazepines in Spain: a nationwide population-based study.

Analysis of changes in trends in the consumption rates pharmacy benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-related drugs.

— Buying Benzos Online — The Hidden Epidemic: How Ireland Has Become Addicted To Benzodiazepines|

Get C. Infarmed, IP. OECD Health data: pharmaceutical market. Benzodiazepines and injury: online risk adjusted diazepam. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. Association of road-traffic accidents with benzodiazepine use. Airagnes G, Pelissolo A.

Curr psychiatry rep [internet]. how

— Benzodiazepines and Opioids

Current Psychiatry Reports. Benzodiazepine use and risk of incident dementia or cognitive decline: prospective population based study. BMJ [Internet].

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