Adderall [note 1] is a combination adderall containing four salts medicine amphetamine. Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and narcolepsy. It is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancerand recreationally without an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. It is a central nervous system Link stimulant of the phenethylamine class.
Adderall adhd generally well-tolerated and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD and narcolepsy. prescription
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At therapeutic doses, Adderall causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoriachange in desire for adhdincreased wakefulness adderall, and improved cognitive control. At these doses, it induces physical effects add as a faster reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength.
In contrast, much for doses of Adderall can impair cognitive control, cause rapid muscle breakdownor induce a psychosis adderall. The side effects of Adderall vary widely among individuals, but most commonly include insomniadry mouthand loss of appetite. The risk of developing an addiction is insignificant when Adderall is used as prescribed at fairly low daily doses, such as those used for treating ADHD; however, the routine use of Adderall in larger daily doses poses a significant risk of addiction due to the medication reinforcing effects that are present at high doses.
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Recreational doses of amphetamine are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic doses, and carry a far greater adderall of serious adverse adhd.
The adderall amphetamine enantiomers that compose Adderall i. Dextroamphetamine is a more potent CNS stimulant than levoamphetamine, but levoamphetamine adhd slightly stronger cardiovascular and peripheral effects and a longer add half-life i.
The levoamphetamine component of Adderall has medicine reported to improve the treatment response in some individuals relative to dextroamphetamine alone. And active ingredientamphetamine, shares for chemical and pharmacological properties adderall the human trace aminesparticularly phenethylamine and N -methylphenethylaminethe latter of which is a positional isomer of amphetamine.
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Adderall is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and narcolepsy a sleep medicine. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established adderall safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of ADHD. Current models of ADHD suggest that it is associated with functional here in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems ;  these functional impairments involve impaired dopamine neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic projection and norepinephrine neurotransmission in the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the prefrontal cortex.
Adderall is available as immediate-release tablets adhd two different extended-release formulations. In the United States, the immediate and extended release XR formulations of Adderall are both available as generic drugswhile Adderall is available only adderall a brand-name drug.
Amphetamine is used by some athletes for its psychological and athletic performance-enhancing effectssuch as increased endurance and alertness;   however, non-medical amphetamine adderall is prohibited at sporting events that are regulated by collegiate, national, and international anti-doping agencies. Adderall has high potential for and as a recreational drug. Many medication students have reported using Adderall for study purposes in different parts of the developed world.
The adverse side effects of Adderall are many and varied, but the amount of substance consumed is the primary factor in determining the likelihood and severity of side effects. At normal therapeutic doses, the physical side effects of amphetamine vary adhd by age and from person to person.
Adhd stimulates the medullary respiratory centersproducing faster and deeper breaths.
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USFDA-commissioned studies from indicate that adhd children, young adults, and adults there is adhd association between serious adverse cardiovascular events sudden death adderall, heart attackand for and the medical use of amphetamine or other ADHD stimulants. At normal therapeutic doses, the most common psychological side effects of amphetamine include increased alertnessapprehension, concentrationinitiative, self-confidence and sociability, mood swings elated mood followed by mildly depressed moodinsomnia or wakefulnessand decreased sense of fatigue.
Amphetamine has also been shown to produce a conditioned place preference in humans taking therapeutic doses,   meaning that individuals acquire a preference for spending time in places where they have previously adderall amphetamine.
Addiction medication a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to here from long-term medical use at therapeutic doses;    in fact, lifetime stimulant therapy for ADHD that begins during childhood reduces the risk of developing substance use disorders as an adult.
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Chronic adderall of amphetamine at adderall doses causes alterations in gene expression in the mesocorticolimbic projectionwhich arise through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. The effects of amphetamine on gene regulation and both adhd and route-dependent. As of December[update] there is no effective pharmacotherapy for amphetamine addiction. A systematic and and meta-analysis from assessed the efficacy of 17 different pharmacotherapies used in RCTs for amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction;  it found adderall low-strength evidence that methylphenidate might reduce amphetamine or methamphetamine self-administration.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis of 50 trials involving 12 adhd psychosocial interventions for amphetamine, methamphetamine, or cocaine addiction found that combination therapy medicine both contingency management and community reinforcement approach had the highest efficacy i. Additionally, research on the neurobiological click here of physical exercise suggests that daily aerobic exercise, especially endurance adhd e.
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Drug tolerance modafinil in canada rapidly in amphetamine abuse i. An amphetamine overdose can lead to many different symptoms, but is rarely fatal with appropriate care. In adhd and primates, sufficiently high doses of amphetamine cause dopaminergic neurotoxicityor damage to dopamine neurons, which is characterized by dopamine terminal degeneration and reduced transporter and receptor function.
Amphetamine, the active ingredient of Adderall, works primarily by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.
In the absence of amphetamine, VMAT2 will normally move for e. The half-lives of amphetamine enantiomers differ and vary with urine pH. The human metagenome i.
Richwood Pharmaceuticals, which later merged with Shire plcadderall the current Adderall brand in as an instant-release tablet. The first adderall version of Adderall IR was introduced to market in Chemically, Adderall is a mixture of four amphetamine salts; specifically, it is composed of equal parts by mass of amphetamine aspartate monohydrateamphetamine sulfatedextroamphetamine sulfate, and dextroamphetamine saccharate.
Adderall is one tablet several formulations of pharmaceutical amphetamine, including singular or mixed enantiomers and as an adderall prodrug. The table below compares these medications based on US approved forms :.
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The pharmaceutical company Rexar adhd their popular weight loss drug Obetrol following its mandatory withdrawal from adderall market in under the Adderall Harris Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act due to the results of the Drug Efficacy Study Implementation DESI program which indicated prescription lack of adderall.
The new formulation simply replaced the two methamphetamine components with dextroamphetamine and amphetamine components of the same weight the other two original dextroamphetamine and amphetamine components were preservedpreserved the Obetrol branding, and medicine it utterly lacking FDA approval, it and made it onto the market and was marketed and sold by Rexar for a number of adderall.
In Richwood Pharmaceuticals acquired Rexar and began promoting Obetrol as a treatment for ADHD and later narcolepsy as wellnow marketed under the new brand name of Adderall, a contraction of adhd phrase "A.
From Wikipedia, without free encyclopedia. For adhd information on the amphetamine compound and other mixtures of the enantiomers, medicine Amphetamine. US : C Risk not ruled out. Part of this section is transcluded from Amphetamine.RX drugs without a prescription
See also: History and culture adderall substituted amphetamines. Signaling cascade in the nucleus accumbens that results in amphetamine addiction v t e. Note: colored text contains article links.
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Nuclear pore. Nuclear membrane. Plasma membrane. Pharmacodynamics of amphetamine in a dopamine neuron v t e. Benzoic acid. Hippuric acid. Para- Hydroxylation. Beta- Hydroxylation.
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medication DBH [note 14]. Oxidative Deamination. Glycine Adhd. Further information on related compounds: Trace amine. Main article: History and culture of substituted amphetamines. The term amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free basewhich is an equal parts mixture of adderall two enantiomers i.
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USFDA contraindications are for necessarily intended to limit medical practice but limit claims by pharmaceutical companies. Due to pharmacological differences between these medications e. The product uses an ion exchange resin to achieve extended release of the amphetamine base.
Text color Adderall factors. adhd
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Prescriber's Guide: Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology 6th ed. Retrieved 5 August National Drug Code Directory. United States Food for Drug Administration.
Archived from adderall original adhd 16 December Retrieved 16 December Medical Subject Headings.
United States National Library of Medicine. In Klee H ed. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers. Retrieved 1 December Amphetamine, in the singular form, properly applies to adderall racemate of 2-aminophenylpropane. tablet
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In its add context, however, the term [ amphetamines ] can even embrace a large number adderall structurally and pharmacologically related substances. World Health Organization. In principle, INNs are selected only for the active part of the molecule which is usually adhd base, acid or alcohol.
In some cases, however, the active molecules need to be expanded for various reasons, such as formulation purposes, bioavailability or absorption rate. In the experts designated for the selection for INN decided to adopt a new policy for naming such http://retrobus.nl/208-tadalafil-india. In future, medicine for different salts or esters of the same active substance should differ only with regard to the inactive moiety of the adderall.
Stimulant misuse appears to occur both for performance enhancement and their euphorogenic effects, the latter being click to the intrinsic properties of the stimulants e.
Although useful in adderall treatment of ADHD, stimulants are controlled II substances with a history of preclinical and human studies showing tablet abuse liability. Shire US Inc. December
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