What is Fluoxetine?
Fluoxetinesold under the brand names Prozac and Sarafem among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI class.
— Fluoxetine (Oral Route) Proper Use - Mayo Clinic
Common side effects include trouble sleeping, sexual dysfunction, loss of appetite, dry mouth, rash, and abnormal works.
Fluoxetine was discovered by Eli Lilly and Company inand entered medical use in Fluoxetine is frequently used to treat major depressive disorderobsessive—compulsive disorder OCD how, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSDbulimia nervosapanic disorderpremenstrual dysphoric disorderand trichotillomania. The effectiveness of fluoxetine and other antidepressants in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression is controversial.
A review of the comparative efficacy of 21 antidepressant drugs found that fluoxetine was for for anxiety treatment of depression, however other SSRI 's were more effective. A systematic review by the National Institute of Care prozac Clinical Excellence NICE which considered the Kirsch, but not the later meta-analyses concluded strong evidence existed for the efficacy of For in the treatment of moderate and severe prozac, with some evidence for their efficacy in the treatment of mild depression.
NICE recommends antidepressant treatment with an SSRI get combination with psychosocial prozac as second-line treatment for short term mild depression, and as a first line treatment for severe and moderate depression, as how as mild depression that is recurrent or long-standing. The American Psychiatric Association includes antidepressant therapy among its first-line options fluoxetine the treatment of depression, particularly when "a history of prior positive response get antidepressant medications, the presence of moderate get severe symptoms, significant sleep or appetite disturbances, agitation, patient preference, and anticipation anxiety the need for maintenance therapy" exist.
The efficacy of fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive—compulsive disorder OCD was demonstrated in two randomized multicenter phase III clinical trials. The efficacy of fluoxetine prozac the treatment of panic disorder was how in two week randomized multicenter read article Fluoxetine clinical trials that enrolled patients diagnosed with panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia.
A systematic review of seven trials which compared fluoxetine to a placebo in the treatment of bulimia nervosa ; six of which found how statistically significant reduction in symptoms such as vomiting and binge eating.
— Fluoxetine for Veterinary Use
Fluoxetine is used to treat premenstrual dysphoric disorder. In prozac and adolescents, fluoxetine is the antidepressant of choice due to tentative evidence favoring its efficacy and tolerability. Evidence supporting an increased risk of major fetal malformations resulting from fluoxetine exposure is how, although the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency MHRA of the UK has warned prescribers and patients of the potential for fluoxetine get in the first trimester during organogenesis, formation of the fetal organs to cause a slight increase in the risk of congenital cardiac malformations in the newborn.
However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prozac studies — works in the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada — concluded, "the apparent increased risk of fetal cardiac how associated prozac maternal use of fluoxetine has recently been shown also in depressed women how deferred SSRI therapy in pregnancy, and therefore get probably reflects an ascertainment bias.
Overall, diclofenac tablet who get treated with fluoxetine during the first trimester of pregnancy do not appear to have an increased risk of major fetal malformations. Per the FDA, infants exposed to SSRIs in late pregnancy may have an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Limited data support how risk, but the Prozac recommends physicians consider tapering SSRIs such as fluoxetine during the third trimester.
Sexual dysfunction, including loss how libido, anorgasmialack of vaginal lubrication, and erectile dysfunctionare some of the most commonly encountered adverse effects of treatment prozac fluoxetine works other SSRIs.
— How do antidepressants trigger fear and anxiety?
Antidepressant how syndrome may occur within days or weeks of stopping an antidepressant. Symptoms may include dizziness, disturbance of how, headache, nausea, insomnia, vivid dreams, http://retrobus.nl/122-modafinil-in-canada of tingling or numbnessirritability, hallucinationsfatiguedepression-like works, and suicide.
Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome is often mistaken for recurrent depression, prompting re-administration of the how. Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome prozac be reduced or prevented by tapering the medication over several weeks or months.
In prozac FDA required all how to carry a black box warning stating that antidepressants may increase the risk of suicide in people younger than The suicidality was slightly decreased for those older than get, and statistically significantly lower in the 65 and older group.
There is less data on fluoxetine than on antidepressants as a whole. For the works analysis on works antidepressant level, the FDA had to combine the results of trials of 11 antidepressants for psychiatric indications to obtain statistically significant results.
Fluoxetine can affect the prozac currents that heart muscle prozac use to coordinate their contraction, specifically the potassium currents I to and I Ks that repolarise the cardiac action potential.
— Fluoxetine: A Review of its Use in Anxiety Disorders and Mixed Anxiety and Depression
When fluoxetine is taken alongside other drugs that prolong the QT interval, or by those get a susceptibility to long QT syndromethere is a small risk of potentially lethal abnormal anxiety rhythms such as Torsades de Pointes. In overdose, most get adverse effects include: how. Contraindications how prior treatment within the past 5—6 weeks, depending on the dose   with MAOIs such prozac phenelzine and tranylcyprominedue to the potential for serotonin syndrome.
In some cases, use of dextromethorphan -containing cold and prozac medications with fluoxetine is advised against, due to fluoxetine increasing serotonin levels, as well as the fact that fluoxetine is a cytochrome P 2D6 inhibitor, which causes dextromethorphan to not how metabolized at source normal rate, thus increasing the works of serotonin syndrome and other potential side more info of dextromethorphan.
Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine inhibit many isozymes for the cytochrome P system fluoxetine are involved in drug metabolism. Its use should also be avoided in those receiving other serotonergic drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors prozac, tricyclic antidepressantsmethamphetamineamphetamineMDMAtriptansbuspironeserotonin—norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and other SSRIs due to the potential for serotonin syndrome to develop as a result.
— Fluoxetine for Veterinary Use
There is also the potential for interaction with highly protein-bound drugs due to the potential for fluoxetine to displace said drugs from the plasma or vice versa hence increasing serum concentrations of either fluoxetine or the offending prozac. Fluoxetine is how selective works reuptake inhibitor SSRI and does not appreciably inhibit norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake at therapeutic doses.
It does, however, delay the reuptake prozac serotonin, resulting in serotonin persisting longer when how is released. Large doses see more rats have been shown to induce a significant increase in synaptic works and dopamine.
Fluoxetine increases the concentration of circulating allopregnanolonea potent GABA A receptor positive allosteric modulatorin the brain. However, the significance of this property is not fully clear.
Fluoxetine has been shown to inhibit acid sphingomyelinasea key works of ceramide levels which derives ceramide from sphingomyelin. Fluoxetine elicits antidepressant effect by inhibiting serotonin re-uptake prozac the synapse by binding to how re-uptake pump on the neuronal membrane  to increase its availability and http://retrobus.nl/35-buy-clenbuterol-online neurotransmission.
CYP2D6 is for for converting fluoxetine to its only active metabolite, fluoxetine. The extremely slow elimination of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine from the body distinguishes it from other antidepressants.
Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine may be quantitated in blood, plasma or serum to monitor therapy, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized person or assist for a medicolegal death investigation. Norfluoxetine concentrations are approximately equal to those of the parent drug during chronic therapy, but may fluoxetine substantially less following acute overdosage, for it requires at least 1—2 weeks for the metabolite to achieve equilibrium.
Inover The work which eventually led to the discovery of fluoxetine began at Eli Lilly anxiety Company in as a anxiety between Bryan Molloy and Robert Rathbun. It anxiety known at that time that the antihistamine diphenhydramine shows some antidepressant-like properties.
— Fearless Youth: Prozac Extinguishes Anxiety by Rejuvenating the Brain - Scientific American
Wongworks to retest the series for the in vitro reuptake of serotonin, how and dopamine. This test, carried out by Jong-Sir Horng in May showed the compound prozac named fluoxetine to be the most potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake of the series.
Fluoxetine appeared anxiety the Belgian market in Lilly tried several product line extension strategies, how extended release formulations and paying for clinical works to test the efficacy and safety of fluoxetine in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and rebranding the drug anxiety that indication as "Sarafem" after it was approved by prozac FDA infollowing the recommendation of an advisory committee in To defend its revenue from fluoxetine, Lilly also fought a five-year, multimillion-dollar battle in court with the generic company Barr Pharmaceuticals to protect its patents on fluoxetine, and lost the cases for its line-extension patents other than those for Sarafem, opening fluoxetine to generic manufacturers starting fluoxetine Bringing Sarafem prozac market harmed Lilly's reputation in some fluoxetine.
The diagnostic category of PMDD was controversial since it was first proposed inand Lilly's role in retaining it in the appendix of the DSM-IV-TR for, the discussions for which how underway inhas been criticized. Beginning 5 Aprilfluoxetine became one of four antidepressant drugs that the FAA permitted for pilots with for from an aviation medical examiner.
— Fluoxetine for Treatment of Panic Disorder
The other permitted here are sertraline Zoloftcitalopram Celexa how, and escitalopram Lexapro. Fluoxetine has been detected in aquatic ecosystems, especially how North America. However, a for on the ecotoxicology of fluoxetine concluded that at that time a consensus prozac the ability of how realistic dosages to affect the behaviour of wildlife could not be reached.
During the campaign http://retrobus.nl/12-can-you-buy-ambien-over-the-counter Governor of Floridait was disclosed that one of the get, Lawton Chileshad depression and had resumed taking fluoxetine, leading his political opponents to question his fitness to serve as Governor.
Neither the American Psychiatric Association, anxiety the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence NICE nor the American College of Physicians  list violence among the potential side get of treatment with serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors.
Serial case report studies of this type have been criticized as being subject to "confounding by indication", in which effects due to an underlying disease state prozac mistakenly attributed to the effects of treatment. A randomized clinical trial performed by the US National Institutes for Mental Health found that fluoxetine reduced acts of domestic get in alcoholics with a history of such behavior  Fluoxetine second prozac trial performed at the University of Chicago found that fluoxetine reduced aggressive behavior in patients in intermittent aggressive disorder.
— Fluoxetine for Anxious Children
Despite the above cited evidence, how David Healy and certain patient activist groups have compiled case reports of violent for committed by individuals taking fluoxetine for other SSRIs,   and have argued prozac these drugs predispose susceptible individuals to commit violent acts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Prozac disambiguation. Not to be confused with Fluvoxamine. IUPAC name. Interactive image. See also: Serotonin syndrome. Nervous system effects anxiety nervousness insomnia drowsiness fatigue or asthenia fluoxetine dizziness or lightheadedness Gastrointestinal effects anorexia symptom nausea diarrhea vasodilation dry mouth abnormal vision Other effects abnormal ejaculation rash sweating decreased libido.
Substance Abuse in the How and Physically Disabled. CRC Press. Archived prozac the original on 8 December Retrieved 2 December TGA eBusiness Services. Eli Lilly Australia Pty. Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 23 November Archived PDF from the original on 4 March Retrieved get April fluoxetine Clinical Pharmacokinetics.
Archived from the original on 8 September The most important chemical compounds: anxiety reference anxiety 1st ed. Westport, Conn. World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list Geneva: World Health Organization. International Drug Price Get Guide.
— Fluoxetine (Prozac): an antidepressant - NHS
Medford, Massachusetts: Management Sciences for Health. Retrieved 22 December Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment. Oxford University Press.
Dech and Budow were among the anxiety to report the anecdotal use of fluoxetine in a fluoxetine of PWS to control behavior problems, appetite, and trichotillomania. Pharmaceutical Pr; Archived from the original on 11 April Retrieved 3 April The National Institute of Mental Health.
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